Archives September 2021

Who Will Win the Big Game? Characteristics That Can Determine the NHL Draftkings Optimizer& NHL Champions

The 2009-2010 N.B.A. Finals and N.H.L. Stanley Cup Finals are under the way. What are the main factors that determine the winners? What are the characteristics that could determine which team will take home the prize? Fans of sports may find this piece interesting because of its sports analysis. Executives and sports organizations may be interested in knowing how we conduct our research initiatives in order to assist teams maximize your chances of winning.

After studying the NHL Draftkings Optimizer series, or championship games that comprise The N.F.L., N.B.A., Major League Baseball and N.H.L., and the major finals of tennis and golf We identified the characteristics of 50 championships in our book “Who will win in the Big Game? A Psychological and Mathematical Method.” Based on similar research, we analyzed certain characteristics of championships that could aid in predicting the winner of the N.H.L. and N.B.A. Finals.

This article will concentrate on the dynamics of leadership defense, consistency, and leadership. These are the aspects that are most relevant for the upcoming finals of this year as they apply to every major sport we’ve looked at.


Leadership in the back of the bench and on the field has been proven to be significant statistically in the context of winning championships. Our study has revealed that there are coaches who are able to lead their teams towards excellence. There are coaches with more experience, like Phil Jackson, the Lakers’ Phil Jackson, with superior records in finals, than an unscientific mathematical model could suggest. Phil Jackson is 10-2 in N.B.A. Finals as coach. Others are Red Auerbach, John Wooden, Chuck Knoll, Bobby Bowden, Scotty Bowman, and Al Arbour – all are coaches who have well-above.500 record in appearances at the finals.

A strong leadership style in the field is important. In the last twenty years, teams that has the most offensive stars in terms of points per game , has been 14-6 (70.0 percent) at the N.B.A. Championships. This favours players like the Lakers as well as Kobe Bryant, with his 27.0 points per game during the entire season.

In the same way, hockey teams that have better offensive leadership had a record of 19-11 (63.3 percent) at the Stanley Cup Finals over the thirty years that have passed, determined by the points earned. This is a factor that favours teams like the Black Hawks, and Patrick Kane (88 points) over the Flyers and Mike Richards (62 points).


In nearly all sports we have examined, defense is the only way to triumph in championships. Our research has proved that this is true for championships like the Super Bowl as well as the World Series. This assertion is applicable to the Stanley Cup Finals and N.B.A. Championships too. In the last three decades, the team with the highest goalie’s save percentage has been 18-11 (62.2 percent). Since the period of high scoring from in the mid-80’s until the mid-90’s, defense in hockey has become a stronger active. Teams that have the best save rate have:

* 3-0 in the last four years (teams were similar save percentages in one time),

* 6-1 in the last 8 years

* and 13-4 in the over the last 18 years.

This is in favor of those Philadelphia Flyers with their.907 save percentage, compared to that of Chicago Black Hawks and their.903 save percentage.

Defense can also help teams in basketball achieve championships. It is evident that, on average, defensive elements are more closely linked to being successful than offensive ones. In the last twenty years, the side that has the best defense, measured by points per match, have finished 13-7 (65.0 percent) during N.B.A. Championships. This is a factor that favours those Celtics (95.6 points each game) during the current season. The Lakers have surrendered 97.0 scores per match in the season’s regular seasons.

Consistency Factors

Another important aspect to win is the ability to stay consistent. It’s interesting to note that this kind of “consistency factor” is often associated with “less thrilling heroics” than the majority of sports fans might think. For instance in baseball, our study shows that the batting average is more closely linked with winning World Series than home runs.

Similarly, in N.B.A. Finals, the field shot percentages are much more significant than shooting percentages of three points. In the last 20 years the team with the highest shooting percentage in the field has been 12-7 (63.2%)) in the professional basketball championship series. This is a factor that favours the Celtics this year, as they have their 48.3 percentage of FG %, compared to that of Lakers’ 45.7%.

Championship Factors and 2010 Finals

Which team will take home this year’s Stanley Cup Finals? The #2 seeded Black Hawks are heavy favorites over the seeded #7 Flyers (about 2.5-1 favorite) However, the Flyers certainly have the power in the bench and between the goalposts in order to make an appearance.

The N.B.A. Finals present an interesting dilemma. The factors that determine leadership point to that of the Lakers (coaching and stars in leadership) however, other elements (defense and the consistency) favour the Celtics.


Grace genetics a Cancer Treatment Alternative to Chemotherapy?

Marijuana has earned a negative image over the years as being a dangerous drug that everyone should be wary of. In recent years the idea of therapeutic benefits of cannabis has been a hot topic. There’s talk of how cannabis plant as well as the grace genetics that comes from its seeds may help treat various ailments, like glaucoma, arthritis as well as Parkinson’s. However, what’s more exciting is that cannabis oil may be a possible alternative treatment option for cancer patients.

The History of Medical Marijuana

It is a term developed to refer to the medical uses of marijuana, however, the concept of making use of it to treat ailments isn’t new at all. Since the beginning of time, people have been cultivating the plant. There’s a male and female, the female one being that is known as marijuana. There is plenty of evidence that indicates marijuana’s use in the past. For instance, greater than 2 pounds of cannabis inside a 2700 year old shaman’s grave within Central Asia.

There are many different cultures that have uses for marijuana that all relate to some kind of treatment or medication.

The Plant is Outlawed

The year 1939 was the one, that the Congress approved a law banning Americans from making use of cannabis for therapeutic or recreational reasons. In 1970, cannabis was declared an illegal substance. Due to this, both the conventional and naturopathic medical professions were unable to contemplate its use.

However, now that states have legalized the medicinal consumption of marijuana, even more experiments can be conducted. So far, we have discovered that cannabis oil can do wonders in combating cancerous cells. It’s an alternative treatment which patients can get access to.

Mary Jane vs The Big C

The THS in cannabis oil binds to CB2 and CB1 cannabinoid receptors within cancerous cells. This triggers an increase in ceramide synthesizing and results in cancer cells being forced to end up dying. The good thing to note is, unlike chemotherapy cannabis oil, it only impacts cancer cells, but and not normal cells. Normal cells do not produce the chemical ceramide after exposure to THC and that’s why it remains unaffected. The cytotoxic chemicals don’t cause the causes cancer cells to die. It’s the tiny shift that occurs in the mitochondria that acts as the cells’ energy source.


Guidelines For the Use of Scaffolding

Scaffolding services for construction for South Africa are a necessity because of the massive renovations of the infrastructure that is in place around cities , as well as the building of new structures. With major events like the FIFA World Cup in the near future, and the progress towards South Africa into becoming a first world nation The changes in the architectural and aesthetic elements of South Africa is astonishing. With these changes comes the requirement for safe and secure and system through an approved safety-certified contractor.

Hiring a Contractor

Engaging a scaffolding contractor who is licensed is the most effective method of locating the most reliable and secure scaffolding system. For South Africa, contractors must comply with the laws of safety and security in the country as well as OHS Act and SANS 1085. OHS Act & SANS 10085 to ensure that the highest level of safety is guaranteed when scaffolding is being used and avoid being held accountable for injury or death.

Between 2000 and 2005 from 2000 to 2005, there were 3999 accidents during the United Kingdom caused by various incidents on construction sites. none of which could have been prevented With proper care and safety, the likelihood of accidents will be at a minimum.

Scaffolding Safety Preparation

When a construction structure can be constructed, there’s a preparatory work to be done by the scaffolding company hired for the task and by the person who is hiring the contractor.

First, the place in which the scaffolding will be constructed must have an even surface that is solid If it’s not it is the responsibility of the contractor stabilize it and ensure that it can allow the scaffolds to be supported.

Safety of pedestrians is vitally crucial. If the scaffolding will be put up in a public area the appropriate precautions must be taken. For instance, the construction could be scheduled in quiet times, at when fewer people will be within a short distance of the structure. Roads can be closed with permission from the council. Scaffolding is not to be put up close to power lines since this could be very dangerous and cause death.

If scaffolding is going to be placed on a freeway, or highway the contractor has to be licensed specifically for this, and is responsible of obtaining this license. The person who hires the contractor is accountable for asking for permission to plan at the city council concerning the construction for any structure that is temporary as well as potential permanent structures that which the scaffolding can be employed to construct.

Getting Started

Construction workers must be adequately trained in the correct techniques for building the scaffolding as well as working with temporary structures.

Before being used the scaffolding needs to be examined, then again when it is erected. It is also recommended that the scaffolding be inspected regularly for any weaknesses or damage to the structure as well as the materials. This is crucial when an addition or alteration is implemented on the structure. Also, scaffolding needs to be checked following extreme dry weather, storms high winds, and other elements that could affect the security of the scaffolding structure.

Safety During Scaffolding Use

If scaffolding is being used the workers must not place items on the boards of scaffolding. Anything that is left on the boards can cause someone to slip onto the scaffolding and be injured or fall to anyone on the ground.

Physical barriers are suggested to avoid injuries to those who walk under the scaffolding structure. However, using tape to make barriers is not recommended since individuals can (and can and will) disregard the tape, and continue to walk. In the same way when the scaffolding is left in a state of untidy the ladder that allows access to it must be removed to block access to anyone who is not authorized. Tower scaffolding that is mobile must be secured by locking the wheels when the workers are working on the towers, and they must remain stationary.

With pre-fabricated systems, such as Self-Lock and KwikStage scaffolding, the chances of accidents are minimized due to the built-in safety features of the scaffolding. The systems can be made in a short time and with less employees without sacrificing security. These systems are locking systems that do not permit any component of the structure of a scaffolding to break loose. Due the fact that it is made of steel, the material used for scaffolding is practically impervious to damage.

Scaffold hire is an increasing requirement for South Africa, especially with special events, the lucrative film industry, and the coming FIFA World cup happening in South Africa. In the absence of proper safety regulations and procedures, the chance of injuries and deaths is extremely high. A safe use of scaffolding can keep the scaffolding and construction industry their thriving and successful products they provide.

Bangkok Charm – top things to do in Sibenik

International travelers come from all over the world to Bangkok, making it one of their most popular destinations. Bangkok is Thailand’s capital and largest city. You can find cheap flights to Bangkok. It is not easy to find cheap flights to Bangkok. They are difficult to find. Bangkok is a charming city that offers many attractions, restaurants, nightlife, and lodgings. Bangkok is Asia’s most popular destination for tourists and holidaymakers.

There are many top things to do in Sibenik from the UK to Bangkok. Qantas, British Airways, Thai Airways, EvaAir and Thai Airways are some of the direct flights to Bangkok. Indirect flights to Bangkok are provided by Etihad Airways and Qatar Airways, Emirates. Qatar Airways, Emirates. Turkish Airways. Turkish Airways. Singapore, Swiss Airways. KLM. Gulf Airways. You can visit Bangkok anytime due to its excellent climate. You can choose the best airline, as in-flight services differ between airlines. All airlines offer customers 180 degree recline that converts into the most comfortable bed. All staff have access to

Find cheap flights to Bangkok to travel to Thailand. Bangkok is also the gateway to many other cities in Bangkok. There are great discounts for first and business class flights. Low cost short and long haul flights are offered by all airlines. Cheap flights are also available for business and economy class travellers.

Book cheap flights to Bangkok and save a lot on your holidays and honeymoons. For your honeymoon, you can also search for packages. Cheap honeymoon packages include flights, accommodation, food, and more. Cheap prices are available for transportation and accommodation. You can search for travel agencies that offer cheap flights to Bangkok and travel companies that provide online bookings for cheap flights.

The Old City, on Rattanakosin Island, is Bangkok’s most famous attraction. Wat Pho, Wat Arun and the Grand Palace are some of Bangkok’s most well-known attractions. Ban Kamthieng, M.R. The Suan Pakkad Palace and Kukrit’s Legacy Home are excellent examples of Thai-style residences. Tourists flock to places like Vimanmek Mansion and Dusit Palace.

What Is the Secret Behind the Odd-Even Prediksi Togel Game Number Technique?

Do you would like to know the secret behind playing the odd and also even number lottery technique? There was a time when I remained in the exact same watercraft with you. After that, I found the key and also shared it with you in among my previous short articles. Currently, I discovered yet another secret concealed within the first and also will certainly share it with your right here. To set the stage for the very first time readers, allow’s summarize a little bit.

When I initially made this discovery, the common belief among Prediksi Togel game gamers was that all wagers are just as likely as well as, I still believe that to now. Yet, that does not indicate you ought to spend your money on just any wager. The trick is that wagers including all weird or all also wagers are hardly ever the lottery game reward winners. Therefore, recognizing this, you can improve your chances of winning the lotto game by meticulously crafting the wagers you make. Fortunately, today computer systems with an excellent lottery software program can complete this for you immediately.

Yet, that’s not the whole story. There is another hidden secret in all this that you require to learn about. As well as, it comes about due to the fact that all lottery games are not the exact same. Using your odd-even lotto number strategy equally to all lotteries is a mistake. A wise gamer considers the dimension of the lottery game. As well as, here exists the concealed key.

In larger lotto games, like the New Jersey 6/49 as an example, the winning numbers will certainly be all strange or all also just as soon as every 100 drawings or annually. I do not find out about you but, for me, a year is a long time to wait for a solitary chance to win. So, the clever gamer prevents playing all odd or all even number wagers. Instead, he spends his money on wagers that a minimum of have a possibility to win in 99 out of 100 drawings.

Currently, below’s the covert trick that a lot of gamers have actually missed out on. With smaller sized lotto games, lottery game players require to be flexible and adjust their reasoning. For example, let’s check out the Colorado 5/32 lotto where the dimension is only 32 numbers. In this lottery game, wagers including all also or all strange numbers happen on the average of as soon as every 25 illustrations. That’s four times more often than in the New Jacket 6/49 lottery game. As you can see, your choice below isn’t quite as specific.

What is the case in your lottery? Just how do you discover this out? Easy. Just pretend to play all strange numbers (or all even numbers) over your lottery game’s background and also check out the graph of the outcomes. For example, if all odd numbers took place 6 times over a 500 drawing period after that, this event took place on the average of when every 83 drawings. That’s 500 drawings separated by 6 events for an average of as soon as every 83 drawings.

Attention: Because all lotto games are various, you need to be mindful. Rules of thumb do not necessarily apply to all lotto games just as. Utilize your computer system and also your lottery software program to find out the realities and readjust your lotto method accordingly.

International Service of Process in Europe

The basics of international service of process

Two main options are available for serving documents on EU. Both are suggested by the Hague Convention of 1995 and have the same legal value. They are all the same, there is no hierarchy between them, however, one is more reliable than the other and the legal effects are the same. A third option, which we refer to as “Hybrid”, is a combination of both the above. Other methods are not covered by the Hague Convention and may be considered irregular.

These are the basic legal principles of the Hague Convention:

One is a public service under the “Judicial Administration”, called “Centralized Authority” as it uses the “Government to transmit documents. It is an intergovernmental service, which in principle is free but subject to high economic constraints and the possibility of not being completed.

Two, through the use of a service supplier, an alternative method, called “decentralized”, can be used. It can use an “International Private Process Server”, “Mail”, or “Local Bailiffs”. All in accordance with the Hague Convention regulations Art. 10. Its applicability depends on the country’s opposition. It is a private method and it is subject to quality control and market pricing.

International Service of Process can be done by either method. They are governed by two legal systems that are linked by the Hague treaty. The main law, also known as Lex Fori >>, is the law under which the documents are issued and the place where they are ruled upon, the “Lex fori forum”. These rules govern the validity and recognition of service in the “lexfori forum”, but they do not affect the legality and effects in the jurisdiction where the documents were served. Respect for the internal laws of civil procedure, and the procedure for “exequatur”, is what governs recognition and enforcement by “Lex loci Forum”. However, these rules do not necessarily apply to the legality and effects of service of process in the jurisdiction where documents were served, “Lex loci”. We can confirm that the “Lex fori” forum cannot accept in a proceeding a “foreign unlawful procedural actuation”, which is an act that violates foreign law. However, the “Lex Loci” forum will not enforce a decision made under such circumstances. This means that you must comply with the Hague Convention and local codes of procedure. Otherwise, you will be held liable in a Civil or Criminal manner.

Although the Centralized method appears to be the most reliable and appropriate, it is not the only one. The Hague Convention itself explains this. For more information, visit the Department of State’s1 webpages. The “Central Authority” does not have to be the only one that can serve documents overseas. This is also the general belief or the promotion of many translation companies and unscrupulous server who have created a “Vox Populi”, which takes advantage of the treaty’s ignorance to sell Translations or Apostilles.

There are many alternatives, or decentralized channels, available to the legal profession. Art. 10 a, b, and c of this Convention are often more reliable, faster, and more efficient. Both the Civil Procedure laws of the jurisdictions must not be conflicted with the method chosen. Additionally, both countries must sign Article. 5,b. 5,b. When serving, these laws must be applied simultaneously.

All signatory nations have accepted the “Centralized method” but not all of them accept the “decentralized method”. Most European countries will accept both. Most people believe there is no alternate decentralized method. Because it ends in a “Fraud of International law”, the legal text cannot be properly interpreted and applied. The service is void or unenforceable.

“International Civil Procedural Liberty” Convention is the inspiration for liberty of method. This Convention was expected to be adopted by the Hague of 1954, which gave flexibility to the Convention of 1965. Both their evolution and application, as well as the interpretation by jurisprudence have produced a positive empiric outcome. The globalization of the process required a quick way to exchange Judicial information and for judgments to be adapted. The world trade has allowed for faster and more efficient litigation and served process. This has resulted in time and money savings and a reduction of “Red Tape”. However, this freedom has its limits. They are based on the need for eliminating some absurd requirements such as the risky examination of legality before service, the option given to defendant to refuse service if documents have not been translated, and the lacunae such no distinction between service to individuals or multinational companies, Nonresistance to presumptions, and many others that we will later see.

As stated, The Hague Convention’s Centralized Method has many “legal lacunae”, or serious defects. One is that it is a free government service that doesn’t use a fast Independent Private Process Server. It is often misleading and deceptive and is frequently requested by courts and litigants. It encourages costly translation, and summons contents are examined for legality before they may be served. This makes it slow and not adaptable to modern international litigation. This is because it conceals gratuity, which can lead to expensive services. It encourages the use of unnecessary translations, as defendants can refuse to receive service if they are not translated. In other cases, the central authority won’t be able examine their legality. Article 5.

If you are not qualified to translate the documents, it is best to avoid doing so. To avoid future problems, you can have the translation translated. However, it is possible to “question” the translation in court during enforcement. European courts will only accept valid translations that are certified or registered by the proper professional. It is believed that only those individuals are listed by the Foreign Affairs Ministries or Courts each year. Do reliable translations. Other “glitches”, which may be found at the home Jurisdiction, can also be kept at home.

However, the Centralized has one major flaw: the need for an exact address. This is a problem because the Central Authority doesn’t “search” for individuals or corporations. A defendant can change his address, or if the address is incorrect, service will be returned. This will waste your time and money and send you back to square one, while court time is running. It is interesting to note that corporations can change the address at their registered headquarters, but they are not required to notify the Mercantile registry immediately. The central authority won’t pay for expenses like access to a merchant regustry.

Another flaw is the requirement for Personal Private Service. This concept is not understood correctly in every country. Bailiffs and Local Judicial officers apply the local Code of Civil Procedure, not special instructions from foreign jurisdictions. Common law defines “Personal” as “Personal”, but Europe understands it as “Substitute”. This problem is compounded if you distinguish between service to corporations and service to individuals. This must be done in the person of the individuals authorized to serve the corporation, i.e. the “officers” listed on the mercantile register. Substitute service is therefore the service to the front desk, secretary or gardener of a corporation. Individuals can leave documents at their address or leave a note on the door. Most local laws allow for this type of service. These officers do not have to know the Hague Convention hierarchy in this sense or what the “Lex fori Forums’ requirements are. Instructions to serve the central authority are transformed into “Let’s do it our legal”, which may not be valid in the other jurisdiction.

Be aware that “insistence” and “persistence” are not possible with the “Centralized Method”. Its efficiency is poor and you will not be able to achieve the best results.

These are the reasons why Common Law Attorneys use as many “tricks” or patches as possible to remove obstacles from the “Central” method. I don’t blame them. Sometimes they use “an agent”, which can often be their local process server or their friendly “tacky translation company” or their neighborhood’s private investigators. They are not only guilty of fraud, defamation, international law, Ilegal practice of legal,Revelation of Secrets…and to complete the apocalypse. If the judgment is not challenged or prosecuted, it will not be “Exequatur”. (Enforcement).

It is clear that disregarding European laws, privacy rights, and rights of image, amongst others, can lead to unintended consequences. The liability of the plaintiff is imposed by Jurisprudence if services are rendered in such a way as it is irregular.

Ex-lege is owed to the “Lex fori forum”, and the “Plaintiff’s Attorney” to comply with the lex-loci, or legal requirements of the jurisdiction where documents are served. These starts at home with confidentiality and secrecy as well as a proper translation of documents.

Service of Process must protect defendants abroad. My understanding is that non-certified translations companies, such as Lex fori, can contaminate cases.

There are a number of channels that make up an “alternative or decentralized method”, which are more reliable and more efficient than the central method.

These are the characteristics of Centralized Service of Process:

1.Translation: High Cost b. Unnecessary cost b.
2.Service Speed: Slow, can paraalize eassily
3.Prior Examination of legality a. Slows Down b. Contradictory
4.Exact Address
5. Non Personal Service
6.No Courtesy
7. No Confidentiality
8 …..

Hague’s alternative method of international service of process

There is no hierarchy between the “Centralized”, and “Decentralized” methods.

Art. Art. They lack “legal guarantees of delivery” which violates the Principle of Contradiction and Equality in a fair Judgment. These channels could make the defendant “defenseless”. These channels are often referred to by jurisprudence more as evidence of an address than evidence of a Legal Notice. These are allowed by the Hague Convention in Article 10, but they must be logically complemented to be legally binding, even if it does not indicate them. One can send blanc pages via fax or mail, since no one will review the contents and thereto obtain an order by default. This is why I recommend that a “Certification Of Contents” be done on either the sending or receiving Jurisdictions by a qualified professional who has “Public Trust” The postal and fax receipts are not an affidavit.

Understanding that service of process abroad’s purpose is to transmit information, a legal notice to a defendant, inform him about a “cause”, which could have serious consequences for his patrimony, rights, and obligations, as they would in your jurisdiction. These rights must be protected and respected by the rules and laws of the legal art to avoid arbitrary application of law or fraud to International law. The Hague Convention channels these notifications by considering internal laws Art. The Hague Convention canalizes these notifications by taking into consideration internal laws Art. 5 but doesn’t provide a way of controlling it or a procedure to appeal. It is not important if the notification was sent, but if it was properly received. It is best to avoid sending service by mail, fax, or email.

These alternative channels are symbols of the “Liberty of Transmittal”, but they have entered into excesses (email, for example), which is why many Common law Attorneys have misunderstood the decentralized method. Translators and private agents. This was because the “mechanism” of service used and employed was the “known one”, the one that sounds logical, but is unconsciously applied in violation foreign laws. As a reflex, professionals have used what they know and sent a joke abroad using the same methods as they did for state notifications. This has led to the impossibility of enforcing judgment recovery or just a challenged service. It is important to distinguish between an International Service of Process or a Banal Service of Process. To honor international justice, even though the effects of your judgement will remain within your jurisdiction, it is only a matter of International legal grace.

The rationale behind the concept of “Public Trust” is that each culture’s legal system and its philosophy is different. Consider the opposite of Europe: There is no Governmental Identification Card in common law countries, no central land or property registry, and sometimes Notaries are just individuals. Process Servers and Translators only have minimal requirements. Everything is considered “suspicious” in Europe. The state ensures maximum legal security at the “Felony and Criminal level” to prevent any “misunderstanding”, fraud, deception or abuse.

Europe. Service of process for either internal purposes or European Purposes is considered a penetration of “Jurisdictional Power”, and when it is completed, it is actually a delegation of powers to the server. Europe. The different “Legal Corporations” have held the monopoly on legal representation, consultation and actuation since the middle of the last century. These basic requirements are not applicable to private agents.

The legal professional associations are those of “Huissiers de Justice”,”Procuradores”, “Ufficiali Judiciario”,”Abogados”,”Avocats”,”Advogados”…. These “legal contents” and “jurisdictional acts” are not available in common law countries, where anyone can do them. Only qualified legal professionals are able to serve legally and properly in most parts of Europe. They are the only professionals who can provide the necessary legal guarantees. The concept of “Agent” in Europe is not recognized in common law. However, the Hague Convention does recognize it as such.

Logically, it is clear: If any country has laws on Civil Procedure that establish internal service of process, which requires guarantees of public faith; given only by qualified professionals, then how come you can expect to use anybody for International Service? A representative? Final thoughts: Do as the Romans when you’re in Rome!

It is important to distinguish between communications with the Server or the Central authority and notifications or service of process to defendants. The one is an organ, the other a defendant. The Central Authority of the server can communicate with them by any method, including e-mail. Also, the Hague Convention requires service of process to comply with two requirements: voluntary and knowingly. These are similar to a “bilateral requirement in Civil Law” (See article 5 (b), alinea Hague Convention). If the defendant is not able to understand what he is being given, service can be refused. He is not capable of understanding documents if they are not translated. Although the defendant may not be able to understand foreign laws or could face economic challenges, there is a presumption: If the defendant does not receive multilingual counsel and advice at the time of service, or if the documents do not contain Legal Notice, etc., then the defendant is “Procedural defenseless”. Service of process is invalid and unutile. . Service to Corporations doing International Business. Those who are subject to the Hague Convention of 1956 for “Company Recognition” must assume that they can speak the language and understand the laws of the Jurisdiction where they do business. The Hague Convention doesn’t distinguish between services according to defendants; individuals or corporations. The Hague Convention is a barrier to corporate service. This is because the plaintiff must translate the documents. Logically, corporations should not use the central authority. They don’t need it.

While “voluntary acceptance” is a condition for service under the Hague Convention, it does not mean “Refusal at any time and systematically to obtain civil or commercial impunity”. Service by Certified Mail, email, and fax, as well as other unilateral acts, are considered “Adherence” from the defendant to service. They all have the common denominator of the defendant not accepting the service voluntarily since he is getting something with unknown contents. He will find out the contents later, and so he accepts first. This is contrary to the Hague Convention which states that these channels are good for verifying an address but not service. The Court will not accept Certified Mail, Email, or Fax as a method of serving the defendant unless it is supported by an Affidavit.

“Service by Agent”, as it is understood in common law is not included in the Hague Convention on Service of Process. However, it is an automatic reflex that many common law Attorneys have used. Because the Agent spoke the language of the Attorney who required service, translations were necessary for these agent services. He is often a foreign national, sometimes illegally, who does not have the right to perform this type of job. They offer “Shaky” services because they speak the language of the Attorney who requires service.

These “Merchants of Process Serving” use translations to increase profits and reduce the risk of future challenges of service. It is accepted in most European countries. Legal Guarantees are granted only to registered and insured professionals. They are recognized by the governments and placed in special associations or corporations subject to strict ethics control. These agents are an insult of law and order. “Defendant’s Rights” are protected by law and confirmed Jurisprudence against “dummy servers” and anyone else from the world. They can also issue affidavits for “fistful of dollars”. Service by Agent is only possible if the Agent is qualified in the country of service.

An interesting anecdote is that I discovered an “International Service of Process Company in Spain” that also did “plumbing” services out of the same office. This business was run by a felon who issuing affidavits to any address or persons he has never seen. It is shameful that North American Justices and Attorneys often accept for international service of process affidavits from persons who do not provide any guarantees or have the essential “Public Trust”, and look down on the rights of defendants as well as the laws of procedure in a foreign country. Employing anyone to serve international process is disrespectful of International and Local law. Respect foreign procedures in order to serve effectively Understanding the European concepts in a “Procedural Notice” is essential, as well as respecting “Justice”.

Art. Art. These agents can serve either a physical or judicial person depending on their type. Some jurisdictions require that a corporation be served by a “Registered officer” (as it appears on their country’s mercantile registry) or their legal department or representative. The place of service must be their registered headquarters. Otherwise, it will be a substitute service. Individuals and corporations can be served at their attorney’s office. An agent can serve individuals at their place of business or home, but not in public places.

The Hague Convention has one exception. It requires that the address be given to the service requester. This restriction reduces the rights for the plaintiff because a qualified lawyer acting as agent may complete service at two addresses to avoid impunity. That is, the address in the summons and the legal address can be served.

You can request service by instructing a Bailiff’s Judicial Officer, article 10c of the Convention. They will serve as an organ and server but will issue an “Act”, or document, in the official language. To have the document legalized, you will need to pay for a translator into English. Hydrid takes care of everything.

Remember, the principle of Europe is “Protection and the rights and obligations litigants” through due diligence and integrity. It is not an “affidavit”, obtained in obscure circumstances at any judicial price or at justice expense.

Summarizing: Both main methods have the same legal value in the Hague Convention. There is no “Hierarchy” among them. They are both equally poor. However, combining them can make an international service more reliable.

WARNING: While translations and Apostilles (Legalizations are not required), if you do use them, the Translator must be certified by the “Foreign Affairs department”, or the “Local Appellate/Superior Court.” A local Notary Public cannot certify the signature of a translation. This does not correct errors in “tacky translations”. Non-registered “Attorneys at Law” for acts reserved to lawyers in most European Union jurisdictions can “contaminate your case” and you are liable. If you are not qualified, do not use anyone who is willing to sign a statement of service.

The Hybrid System: Inventing International Service of Process

Our hybrid system of international private personal service of process combines not only “methods”, it also includes the various channels or options available to the convention. It is applied in steps and takes less time than the “centralized” method. It is a better service, which takes the positive sides of each method to get the best legal guarantees. Please contact us to discuss your case and how our system can apply.

The International Service of Process hybrid system addresses the shortcomings of the Hague Conference’s central method and the abuses of the alternative method. This service of process is simple and has the characteristics of legality, reliability, and speed. The “system” on the other hand applies the principles and laws of the Hague Convention to each jurisdiction, incoming or outgoing, as well as their respective procedures. The purpose of the “legal order” was to ensure maximum legality and protection for litigants. Its main feature is that service is doubled, with a preliminary international service and an Euroservice.

The system guarantees that the rights of plaintiffs and defendants are protected by multilingual registered and insured Attorneys at Law in each country. The documents are delivered by the legal professional in full confidentiality. He will provide advice in the defendant’s language, giving detailed legal notices and explaining the next steps. All services are performed with mandatory secrecy, neutrality, Courtesy, and professionalism in accordance with Civil procedure’s internal laws.

The defendant cannot refuse service or claim that he is “unprotected”. There is no “a posteriori” examination of contents or delay, translation’s costs or apostilles, and no promises of service. However, a “Jurisdictional Act” has been completed in accordance with local law by a qualified lawyer.

a. The defendant cannot refuse service or claim that he is “unprotected”. b. Liberty of choosing a process server according to the market value of the legal profession. c. There is no pre-examination of the contents, or delay in exams. d. Translation’s costs are not included. e. No apostilles or stamps, or clips. e. There is no doubt about delivery of Contents e. Customer service and Affidavit of English g. Une of Bailiff h. Delivery is guaranteed i. Service is guaranteed by the court

….. and many more

Our pricing list reflects the fact that we have to take into account many legal and practical aspects in order to provide service in Europe. We also offer services that are less expensive than the “Centralized” option and the same value.

We propose different types of service depending on the time required for service. Urgent has different protections. To obtain the exact address required by the Hague Convention, we always conduct a Skip Trace or Locate. In order to save you unnecessary expenses and avoid any additional costs, we then mail a preliminary service to process to verify physical existence and address. We ask for an interview or appointment and place ourselves as neutral Attorneys at Law as required by law. Counseling the defendant is not possible. We verify the identity and knowledge of the receiver and discuss their rights and obligations. This procedure is summarized in a Custom made Affidavit, which is legalized by Notary Public of diplomatic representation of lex fori (That’s to say: the Consul).


Why web services?

The popularity of component-based programming is growing. It is rare to find an application that doesn’t involve the use of components from different vendors. Applications have become more complex and require remote components to be leveraged.

A component-based application can be an end-to–end e-commerce solution. A Web farm e-commerce application must submit orders to an Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP), back-end application. The ERP application may reside on different hardware or run on a different operating platform.

Microsoft Distributed Component Object Model, (DCOM) is a distributed object infrastructure that allows applications to invoke Component Object Models (COM) components on other servers. It has been ported to a variety of non-Windows platforms. DCOM is not widely accepted on these platforms so it is seldom used to facilitate communication between Windows computers and non-Windows ones. ERP software vendors frequently create components for Windows that communicate with the back end system using a proprietary protocol.

Some services that an e-commerce app leverages might not be available in the datacenter. If the ecommerce application is accepting credit card payments for goods purchased by customers, it will need to contact the merchant bank in order to process their credit card information. DCOM and other technologies like Java RMI and CORBA are only applicable to components and applications within the corporate datacenter. These technologies are based on proprietary protocols, which are by default connected.

There are many possible barriers that clients face when communicating over the Internet with the server. Network administrators all over the globe have installed corporate firewalls and routers to block virtually every form of Internet communication. Sometimes, it takes an act God to get network administrators to open ports beyond what is necessary.

Your clients may not be so lucky if you are able to get the right ports opened by a network administrator. For Internet situations, it is not possible to use proprietary protocols like Java RMI, CORBA, or DCOM.

These technologies are also connected-oriented, and cannot manage network interruptions gracefully. The Internet is out of your control so you can’t make assumptions about its reliability or quality. A network interruption could cause the client’s next call to the server to fail.

These technologies are highly connected-oriented, making it difficult to create the load-balanced infrastructures required to ensure high scalability. You cannot route the next request to another server if the connection between client and server has been severed.

These limitations have been overcome by developers who have attempted to leverage a model known as stateless programming. However, they have not had much success due to the technology being heavy and making it difficult to establish a connection with remote objects.

DCOM is not the best option for communication between DCOM and the credit card processing server. A third-party component, which is similar to an ERP solution, is usually installed in the client’s datacenter. In this case, it is the credit card processing provider. This component is merely a proxy to facilitate communication between the merchant bank and the e-commerce software via a proprietary protocol.

Do you see a pattern? Software vendors often resort to building their own infrastructure due to limitations in existing technologies that hinder communication between computers systems. Software vendors have often turned to building their own infrastructure to increase functionality in the ERP system and credit card processing systems.

Microsoft began to support these Internet scenarios by augmenting its technologies. This strategy included COM Internet Services (CIS), which allows for a DCOM connection between client and remote component over port 80. CIS was not widely adopted for a variety of reasons.

It was obvious that a new approach was required. Microsoft decided to tackle the problem from the bottom. Let’s take a look at the requirements that the solution needed to be successful.

InteroperabilityRemote service must be accessible by clients using other platforms.
Internet friendlinessClients who access remote services via the Internet should find the solution to their problems.
Interfaces that are well typedIt should not be unclear what type of data is being sent and received by remote services. Datatypes that are defined by remote services should be able to map fairly well with datatypes that are defined by procedural programming languages.
Use existing Internet standardsRemote service implementation should take advantage of existing Internet standards and not reinvent solutions to problems already solved. The technology can be based on existing toolsets, products and standards.
Any language supportThe solution should not be tied to one programming language. Java RMI is, for instance, tightly coupled to Java. Visual Basic and Perl would make it difficult to access remote Java objects. Clients should be able implement new Web services or use existing Web services regardless of what programming language they were written in.
Any distributed component infrastructure supportedThe solution should not be tied to any one component infrastructure. You shouldn’t have to buy, install, maintain, or manage a distributed object infrastructure in order to create a remote service or use an existing one. These protocols should allow for a basic level of communication between existing distributed objects infrastructures, such as DCOM or CORBA.

It should not be surprising that Microsoft’s solution is called Web Services. A Web service is an interface that allows a client to invoke a specific activity. The Web service can be accessed by a client through Internet standards.

Building blocks for web services
This graphic illustrates the basic building blocks required to enable remote communication between two applications.

Let’s talk about the purpose of each one of these building blocks. Many readers will be familiar with DCOM so I will also include the DCOM equivalent for each building block.

DiscoveryClient applications that require access to Web services functionality must be able to locate the remote service. This is done through what is generally called “The Remote Service Locator” (or simply “The Remote Service Locator”).Discovery. You can facilitate discovery using both a centralized directory and more ad-hoc methods. The Service Control Manager (SCM), in DCOM, provides discovery services.
DescriptionAfter determining the end point of a Web service, clients need sufficient information to be able to interact with it. A Web service description includes structured metadata about the interface to be used by client applications as well as written documentation, including examples of usage. A DCOM component exposes structured data about its interfaces through a type library (typelib). The metadata in the typelib of a component is stored in a proprietary binary format. It can be accessed via an API (proprietary application programming interface).
Format for a messageA client and server must agree on a common format and way to encode data in order to exchange it. Standard ways of encoding data will ensure that the server can properly interpret the data sent by the client. DCOM is a protocol that allows messages to be sent between a client or server. It follows the DCOM Object RPC(ORPC) protocol.

It is almost impossible to develop a toolkit to help the developer abstract from the underlying protocols without a standard format for formatting messages. The creation of an abstraction layer between the developers and the underlying protocol allows the developer more time to concentrate on the business problem and less on the infrastructure needed to implement it.

CodingData sent between the client/server must be encoded in the message body. DCOM uses a binary encryption scheme to serialize data from parameters that are exchanged between clients and servers.
TransportAfter the message has been formatted, and the data serialized into the message body, it must be transmitted between the client/server over some transport protocol. DCOM supports many proprietary protocols that are bound to various network protocols like SPX, NetBEUI and TCP.

Web Services Design Decisions

Let’s talk about some of the design decisions that went into these building blocks for web services.

How to Choose Transport Protocols

First, determine how client and server will communicate. Although the server and client can be on the same network, the client could communicate with the server via the Internet. The transport protocol must also be compatible with both LAN and Internet environments.

DCOM, CORBA and Java RMI, among others, are not well-suited to support communication between clients and servers over the Internet. Protocols like Hypertext Transfer Protocol, (HTTP), and Simple Mail Transfer Protocol are well-proven Internet protocols. HTTP is a request/response messaging protocol that allows you to submit a request and receive a response. SMTP is a routable messaging protocol that allows for synchronous communication. Let’s look at why HTTP and SMTP work well together for the Internet.

HTTP-based Web apps are stateless in nature. They don’t rely on a constant connection between the client/server. This makes HTTP an ideal protocol to use with high-availability configurations, such as firewalls. If the server handling the original client request is unavailable, any subsequent requests can automatically be routed to another server. This happens without the client even knowing.

SMTP is supported by almost all companies. SMTP is well-suited for asynchronous communication. The e-mail infrastructure handles all retries if service is interrupted. Unlike HTTP, SMTP messages can be passed to a local mail server which will attempt to deliver your mail message.

Another advantage to both HTTP and SMTP are their ubiquitousness. Employees have grown to depend on both their Web browsers and e-mail, so network administrators are comfortable supporting these services. Proxy servers and network address translation (NAT), are two technologies that allow you to access the Internet via HTTP within corporate LANs. Administrators often reveal SMTP servers that are located within firewalls. The Internet will route messages sent to this server to their destination.

For credit card processing software, a merchant bank must respond immediately to decide if the order should go to the ERP system. HTTP is well-suited for this task with its request/response messaging pattern.

ERP software packages cannot handle large orders that could be generated from e-commerce applications. It is also not necessary that orders are submitted to ERP systems in real-time. SMTP can be used to queue orders, so they can be processed serially in the ERP system.

Microsoft Message Queue Server is another option if the ERP system supports distributed transaction. Non-Internet protocols are less problematic as long as the ERP system and e-commerce app reside on the same LAN. MSMQ is more flexible than SMTP in that messages can be added to and removed from the queue during a transaction. If a transaction fails to process a message pulled from the queue, the message will be automatically placed back into the queue.

How to choose an encryption scheme

HTTP and SMTP allow data to be sent between clients and servers. However, neither protocol specifies how data should be encoded in the message’s body. Microsoft required a standard and platform-neutral way for data to be encoded between the client (and the server)

Extensible Markup Language, (XML), was chosen because it was possible to leverage Internet-based protocol. XML has many benefits, including cross-platform support and a common type system. It also supports industry-standard character sets.

Binary encoding schemes, such as Java RMI, CORBA and DCOM, must be compatible with different hardware platforms. Different hardware platforms may have different internal binary representations of multi-byte number. Intel platforms order bytes of a Multi-byte Number using the little endian protocol; many RISC Processors order bytes of a Multi-byte Number using the big endian protocol.

XML uses a text-based encoding system that utilizes standard characters sets to avoid binary encoding. Some transport protocols like SMTP can only contain text-based messages.

Binary methods of encoding such as DCOM or CORBA are cumbersome. They require support infrastructure to remove the developer from all the details. XML is lighter and easier to use because it can be created using standard text-parsing methods.

A variety of XML parsers can be used to simplify the creation and consumption XML documents on virtually every platform. XML is light and supports excellent tools, so XML encoding gives you incredible reach as almost any client can communicate with your Web service from any platform.

How to choose a formatting convention

Additional metadata is sometimes necessary in the body of a message. You might include information such as routing information or transaction information to help you determine the services that the Web service will provide to meet your request. XML does not allow you to distinguish the body of a message from the associated data.

Although transport protocols like HTTP offer an extensible mechanism to store header data, some data associated with a message may not be specific for the particular protocol. A client may send a message to multiple destinations that must be routed over different transport protocols. If routing information was placed in an HTTP header, it would need to be translated before being sent over to the next intermediary using another transport protocol such as SMTP. It should be included in the message because the routing information is specific for the message and not the transport protocols.

Simple Object Access Protocol, (SOAP), provides a protocol-agnostic way to associate header information with message body. Every SOAP message must define an envelope. An envelope contains a body that includes the message’s payload and a header that may contain metadata.

SOAP does not limit the format of the message body. This could be a concern as it makes it difficult to create a toolkit that abstracts you away from the underlying protocols without having a consistent way to encode the data. It is possible that you will spend more time learning the interface of the Web service than solving the business problem.

It was necessary to have a standard method of formatting remote procedure calls (RPC) messages and encoding their list of parameters. This is precisely what Section 7 of SOAP’s specification offers. It defines a standard naming convention for procedure-oriented messages and an encoding style.

Platforms like ASP.NET or Remoting provide a standard format to serialize data into XML messages.

How to choose the description mechanism

SOAP is a standard format for formatting messages between the Web service client and the Web service. The client will need additional information to correctly serialize and interpret the response. XML Schema allows you to create schemas that can be used for describing the content of a message.

XML Schema has a set of datatypes that can be used for describing the content of a message. You can also create your datatypes. A merchant bank might create a complicated datatype to describe content and structure of a message that is used to submit a request for credit card payments.

A schema is a collection of element and datatype definitions. The schema is used by a Web service to communicate the data expected to be in a message and to validate the messages.

However, a schema by itself is not sufficient information to describe a Web-service effectively. The schema doesn’t describe the messages between the client, server and client. A client must know, for example, whether they can expect a response from the ERP system when an order has been placed. Clients should also know the transport protocol that the Web service uses to send requests. The client must also know the address of the Web service.

This information is provided in a Web Services Description Language document (WSDL). WSDL (Web Services Description Language) is an XML document which describes a specific Web service. Tools like ASP.NET.NET.WSDL.exe or Remoting SOAPSUDS.exe are able to consume WSDL and build proxies automatically for the developer.

A Web service, like any other component used in software development, should be accompanied with written documentation. This is for developers who use the Web service to program. Documentation should explain what the Web service does and the interfaces it exposes. It should also include examples of how it can be used. If the Web service is accessible to clients via the Internet, it is particularly important to have good documentation.

Choose Discovery Mechanisms

How can you help potential clients find the Web service once it’s been developed and documented? Your approach to a potential client if the Web service is intended to be consumed only by a member or your development team can be informal. For example, you might share the URL of the WSDL file with a peer a few cubicles below. Advertising your Web service to potential clients is a different matter.

It is necessary to have a common way of advertising Web services. Universal Description, Discovery, and Integration is a common way to advertise Web services. UDDI, an industry-standard directory service, can be used for advertising and locating Web services. UDDI lets users search for Web services by using a variety of search criteria including company name and category as well as type of Web service.

DISCO is a proprietary XML format that Microsoft has created to allow Web sites to promote the services they offer. DISCO is a protocol that allows for the creation of hyperlinks to locate resources. Microsoft Visual Studio.NET is the primary user of DISCO. Developers can target a specific Web server to navigate through the Web services available.

What is missing from Web Services?

Some key components of a distributed component infrastructure may not be defined by Web services. One of the most noticeable omissions is a clearly defined API for creating and consuming Web service and a set components services such as support for distributed transaction support. Let’s talk about each of these missing parts.

Web service-specific APIAn API is used by most distributed component infrastructures to perform tasks such as creating an instance of a part, initializing the runtime and reflecting the metadata about the component. Most high-level programming languages offer some interoperability with C. The API is typically exposed as a set of C method signatures. RMI ties its API tightly to a single high level language, Java.

Microsoft left it up for individual software vendors, in order to make sure that Web services can be used on any programming language. Later in the book, I will talk about two Web services implementations on the.NET platform: ASP.NET, and Remoting.

Component servicesThe Web services platform doesn’t provide many services that are common in distributed component infrastructures such as remote object life management, object pooling and support for distributed transaction. These services will be implemented by the distributed component infrastructure.

As technology improves, some services can be added later, such as support distributed transactions. Other services, like object pooling or object lifetime management can be considered an implementation detail. Remoting, for example, defines extensions that support object lifetime management. Microsoft Component Services supports object pooling.


Although component-based programming has been a great way to increase developer productivity, some services can’t be encapsulated using a component that is located within the client’s datacenter. Legacy technologies like Java RMI, CORBA and DCOM are not suitable for allowing clients access services over the Internet. Microsoft decided to start at the bottom and create an industry-standard method of accessing remote services.

Web Services is a broad term that refers to a set of industry-standard protocols and services that are used to enable a basic level of interoperability among applications. Web services have received unprecedented industry support. Web services has received unprecedented industry support. This standard facilitates interoperability among applications regardless of platform.

Booming: Indian Television News Channels

News programs are now a hot commodity and compete for viewers with popular shows telecast on different channels. Every major broadcaster has at least one news channel. Programming software that can be used round-the-clock is the biggest problem when launching a satellite channel. This is why newsgathering for 24-hour news channels is so important. The new electronic channels are attempting to fulfill this task by covering all incidents, regardless of their location, time, and place. These channels have not only changed the way Indian television broadcasts news, but also the format of the news. Doordarshan, which had the Indian newscast monopoly before 1990s turned news programming into a dowdy business. The news is now an essential commodity, just like food, shelter, and cloth. Today’s news bulletins are notable for their objectivity, topicality, glossy editing, and high-quality visuals. News has come a long way since the DD era. Every event is covered by news. This article will discuss some important changes in Indian news broadcasting since the Gulf War.

Indian Television – Flash Back

The current liberalized television environment in India has seen significant changes to Indian television. These changes can be understood by having a brief overview of the journey taken by television channels. It began as an experiment with a grant from UNESCO on 15 September 1959. The experiment was conducted in a makeshift studio at Akashvani Bhavan, New Delhi. The experiment began with a one-hour program that was broadcast twice per week. It covered topics such as community health, citizen rights and education, traffic sense, and traffic sense. It was launched six years after the beginning of television broadcasting. Indian viewers were served a daily one-hour program that included a news bulletin. One major problem with television was the inability to see the original colours of objects due to black and white transmission. The Prime Minister addressed the nation on India’s 35th Independence Day from Red Fort, Delhi. This was the first multi-color program. The DD National channel was also launched that day. Launching the National channel was intended to foster national integration and instill pride in Indians. Indian viewers enjoyed the colored version hosted by New Delhi at their drawing room. Television signals have been infiltrated to every corner of the subcontinent through the coverage of important events and other occasions. The Indian Government had taken every step to increase television broadcasting geographically and demographically. Television signals were only available to 28% of the population in 1983. By 1985, that number had increased to over 90%. To provide exclusive entertainment for urban viewers, DD Metro was created in 1984. This channel was initially restricted to major cities.
Doordarshan, a public broadcaster presented the news in a naturalized way. All controversial topics were covered. Television broadcasting was tightly controlled by the ruling government. The national news bulletins of Doordarshan were not able to deliver the international news to their viewers. As news was slanted in favor of the ruling party, objectivity was the first to be lost. The news was freed from the DD newsroom in 1988 and gained objectivity and credibility with the New Delhi Television (NDTV). Everybody was eagerly awaiting Friday night’s telecast of ‘The World This Week. This was the only India-based program that looked at the rest of world. The World This Week had the best international news programme and was a great source of information. It also covered important news that the regular DD News was unable to provide. This program is considered one of the most popular and best-loved television programs in India. NDTV produced India’s first live televised coverage in 1989 of the country’s general election. This coverage was a huge success in terms of commercial and critical success, setting a new standard in Indian television. The media landscape has changed dramatically since the Gulf War.

Golf War – The Catalyst

Satellite television in India after 1990 has been transnational. This was due to the entry of multinational corporations into Indian markets as a result of the Government’s privatization policy. CNN’s coverage of the Gulf War in 1990 led to international satellite television being introduced to India. Richard Li launched Star Plus in August 1991. This was the first satellite channel to beam the signal to the Indian subcontinent. Subhash Chandra launched Zee TV in October 1992. This is India’s first Hindi channel that is privately owned. The channel was followed shortly by Sony, and then later domestic channels like Eenadu and Asianet. Advertising had become the main source of funding and entertainment programs were taking center stage in the organization’s programming strategies. Doordarshan’s original mandate to support economic and social development has been clearly diluted. Doordarshan was facing stiff competition from international channels such as CNN and BBC in news and public affairs programming. Doordarshan was planning to sell some slots in the sponsored news program. NDTV is the first country-based producer of national news ‘News Tonight. It aired on Doordarshan’s government-owned channel. This was a landmark in Indian television. TV Today Network aired a Hindi-language and current affairs program called ‘Aaj Tak’ in the same time slot on DD Metro channel. The unique presentation style of Late S. P. Singh made this programme popular. We still remember the sign-up message, “Ye Thi Khabar Aaj Tak Intizar.” Kijiye Kal Tak”. Aaj Tak has been viewed by many Indian viewers as a daily habit due to its unique style of news presentation. A five-minute fast-paced, condensed daily news bulletin Ankhon Dekhi was also aired by Nalini Singh on TV Today Network. Metro Channel of Doordarshan also aired Newstrack and Business Aaj Tak. This was the time when satellite channels mainly focused on entertainment programs for their channels. Doordarshan remained the most sought-after area of ‘news’.

Major Players

Doordarshan’s monopoly on television was ended in 1992 when Indian private channels invaded Indian borders to entertain viewers. The private channels were limited to entertainment programming at the start of the 1990s. Entertainment programs include comedy serials, family drama, children programmes and cartoons. Talk shows, recipe shows, music concerts, non-fiction programmes, and movies are all included. Private entertainment channels have added infortainment programs to their Fixed Point Charts. The demand for infotainment programs was in mind when media houses began to produce entertainment magazines, news magazines, and news programmes for different channels. Television Eighteen India Limited (TV18), India’s leading business and consumer news broadcaster, launched India’s first entertainment magazine, ‘The India Show’, on Star Plus in 1993. This media powerhouse was able to provide prime-time television content to nearly all Indian satellite channels, including Star Plus, Sony Entertainment Television and Zee. TV18 also produced the weekly India Business Report, a business news program for BBC World. Indian viewers only had a few options for viewing the television news, such as Doordarshan’s public broadcaster and BBC. To view televised news, viewers needed to watch Dordarshan or other international news channels such as BBC and CNN. Zee Television launched Zee News, a news channel, in 1995, to offer more news and more information. Zee News, a news channel that also covers current affairs, revolutionized how news was delivered to viewers. Zee News was founded in 1998 and has strived to be the fastest news channel, achieving one goal: Sabse Pahle (Always First). Star News, a Murdoch-owned news channel, was the other 24-hour news channel. It was broadcast in 1998. Star signed a five-year contract with Prannoy Roy, the owner of NDTV (New Delhi Television Company), to provide news content.
The relentless and exhaustive coverage of Kargil war between India & Pakistan attracted more attention and more viewers to the electronic channel. This wartime conflict was also televised and set a new standard for wartime journalism. Common citizens were able to see how brave Jawans fought in hostile conditions during the Kargil war. They also watched the war front live on the exclusive news channels Star-TV, Zee-News, and Zee-News. Live coverage of the battlefield created a sense of pride among Indian citizens, which eventually led to the collection of huge amounts of money for the welfare of the loved ones of Kargil martyrs. Each news program attracts a large audience, but the Kargil war draws private broadcasters to invest more in broadcasting by creating a news channel. CNBC Asia and TV18 formed a 49:51 joint venture in November 1999 to launch CNBC India. CNBC India’s sole provider of programming, TV18 produces 12 hours per day local content on the 24-hour satellite channel.
TV Today group launched Aaj Tak, a Hindi 24-hour news channel, following the enormous success of the news program. It was launched in December 2000. This news channel, which has the same name as Aaj Tak, covers India with intelligence, courage, and lots of local flavour. Aaj Tak became India’s top news channel within 11 months. It was also awarded the Indian Television Academy Awards Best News Channel award. Apart from regular news items, some mega events (such as Kandhahar hijack and September 11 attacks, attack on Parliament, Afghanistan war, Godhra massacre and riots), have pushed up the viewership. NDTV’s contract for five years with Star group to outsource news and related programming ended on March 2003. NDTV launched two 24-hour news channels simultaneously, NDTV India – Hindi news channel and NDTV 24X7 – English news channel. These news channels target the Indian diaspora around the globe. News-crazy Indians were able to receive more information at a faster pace from various channels. Television cameras can capture any unusual event, from Rastrapati Bhawan’s bedroom to the highest point of the building. Operation West End, Shakti Kapoor Case and other major sting operations have made the power of TV journalism more evident. This type of investigative journalism has influenced the way we view news and introduced new ideas of editorial freedom. Sahara Samay, the 24-hour Hindi news channel launched by the world’s largest family, ‘Sahara India Parivar’, on March 28, 2003. It is the first city-centric satellite news channel covering 31 Indian cities with their own city bulletins. In keeping with the demand for news, the Union cabinet approved a proposal to convert DD Metro into DD news at a meeting that took place on 3 October 2003. DD-News was launched on the 3rd of November 2003 as a result of these decisions. The news channels are not available in all languages. The news channel of DD includes the 24-hour news bulletins in Hindi and English. These news bulletins are also telecast twice a days on the National Network at DD National.
Rajat Sharma of ‘Aap Ki Adalat” fame, Sohaib Illyasi (the man behind the highly successful “India’s Most Wanted”) and Taun Tejpal, editor in chief of Tehelka, teamed up and launched India TV, a Hindi news channel and current affairs channel. It was free to air on May 20, 2004. This channel was highly anticipated by Indian viewers. This much-anticipated news channel hopes to stand out from other channels by setting new standards for responsible journalism. Rajat Sharma, Chairman, India TV said that the launch would bring about a change in broadcast news reporting in India. India TV will continue to set international standards for responsible and credible news reporting by maintaining them. We will not allow the sensationalism and graphic portrayals of violence to be used in our news reporting. We will respect the right of the viewer to accurate information as well as their right to truthfulness and veracity. India TV is more than a news channel. It is a movement. NDTV Profit, a pioneer in Indian TV news, is set to make a new revolution in business news by launching NDTV Profit. This 24-hour channel was launched by NDTV on January 17, 2005.
There is no point at which news channels are saturated. The sky is the limit. Entertainment channel to infotainment channels, infotainment to news channel news channels, news channels to business channel news channel and many more. Satellite channels are now more current and meet international standards. CNBC TV18 is still the most popular news channel in India. It has been the sole business channel since 1999. The launch of a 24-hour Hindi consumer channel called “Awaaz” has set the standard for television channel growth. This news channel empowers consumers to make informed decisions about saving, investing and spending. The programmes cater to people from all walks of life. They include personal finance, stock, savings, and a variety of markets such as commodity, stocks, and other investments. ; small businesses; education and career guidance; verticals such as health, shopping, etc.
A new news channel was launched in the already saturated news space on Indian TV. Jagran TV Pvt Limited’s news channel Channel 7 was up-linked on the 27th March 2005. This channel was created to reach the large Hindi-speaking audience, which is already being covered by many news channels. Channel 7 designed every program with the goal of catering to all audiences, not just men who are attracted to news channels.

Regional Leaders

Doordarshan broadcasts Hindi programmes and other official languages to cater for the Indian audience. It launched a number Regional Language Satellite Channels (DD – 4 to DD – 11 and DD – 13), and telecast programmes into Assamese and Bengali. All terrestrial transmitters within the state relay the Regional channels, as well as additional programs in the Regional Language that are only available through cable operators. Doordarshan’s regional satellite channels broadcast major news programmes with some entertainment programs.
Private regional channels have followed the footsteps of the Big brother Doordarshan. They are not a news channel or an entertainment channel. They claim to be an infotainment channel and are not following the news channels. Private channels broadcast through the state’s dominant languages. Many big players have entered the market due to rising advertising revenues and growing numbers of viewers. ETV, Sun TV and Asianet are some of the major regional media players. Some of the biggest players tried their luck in various states. Zee Marathi has Zee Punjabi, Zee Bangla and Zee Marathi are three of the regional channels on Zee TV. Star Network launched Star Vijay in Tamilnadu, making it one of India’s most popular entertainment channels. ETV Network, which is part of Ramoji Group, has 12 regional infotainment channels. ETV Network is the source for rich entertainment in eight languages. These languages include Telugu and Bangla, Marathi and Kannada, Oriya and Gujarati, as well as Hindi for viewers in Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan, Bihar, Bihar, and Madhya Pradesh. Each channel of ETV Network focuses solely on the unique cultural identity and aspirations of its viewers. Consider the south Indian language Telugu. There are twelve satellite channels that roam the skies with different tastes and flavours. There are three news channels, one music-based channel and the rest are informationtainment channels. Three channels (ETV2, TV 9 or Teja News) are exclusively dedicated to news programs.
Sahara India Pariwar is proud that five news channels are part of the bouquet of Sahara Samay. These channels are: Sahara Samay NCR, Sahara Samay Mumbai, Sahara Samay Bihar & Jharkhand, Sahara Samay Madhya Pradesh & Chattisgarh, and Sahara Samay Uttar Pradesh & Uttranchal. Sahara Samay in India has gained a loyal following through a variety of National & Regional News Channels. These channels are young and lively channels that target students and women. They also provide hardcore news. Regional news channels cover all aspects of the genre, including lifestyle, fashion and food, shopping and health, fitness, education, and career issues. They also provide user-friendly information about traffic updates, events in cities, train and air times, and other useful information. National news channels can no longer limit their coverage to the national level. Because of stiff competition from regional cannels, they cannot ignore regional news. Regional news channels are entering the market with a strong willpower and an ambition to portray regional issues at national and international levels.

An Insider’s Guide to Getting to Television Advertising


You are making the first step towards more sales and better profits by investigating the benefits of TV advertising. Television is proving to be a powerful tool for increasing profits for business owners. It’s not just the “deep pockets” crowd. Television advertising is gaining popularity like never before. Some come away bruised and battered. Many are still smiling from ear to ear, though, because they know the secrets of television advertising success on a radio or print budget.

The Golden Rule

Do not let the tail wag your dog. It is important to be in control of your television advertising journey so it pays off.

Does this mean that you must be an expert?

No. You need to understand the business and medium in order to create a television advertising campaign that is cost-effective.

We prepared the “Insider Guide to Crossing Over to TV Advertising… on a Print or Radio Budget.. And Making Plenty Of Profit!”

It’s your GPS for a profitable and affordable TV Advertising experience.

Small business owners have the opportunity to make their sales explode by using television advertising. The lowest rates for television advertising, including commercials and television productions, are ever seen. You can laser target your ideal prospect with specialty channels.

Television can add credibility to your business and you like no other medium.

There is a reason why you see video popping up everywhere. More business owners are realizing that the more senses that you have, the more likely you are to gain access to the most crowded area anywhere: your prospect’s mind.

Do you need more proof? You Tube’s incredible success is proof enough. Video is a popular medium for people to watch.

Isn’t this the time to jump onboard and give it a shot?

These 5 secrets will allow you to harness the power of television advertising for your business.

Secret #1 Have A Clear Unique Selling Message

This is true for all marketing, but especially TV advertising.

Your prospects should have a compelling reason for wanting to learn more about you product or service.

You need to ensure that your commercial is effective in getting your prospect to take the next steps in your sales process, even if it’s a 30- or 60-second commercial.

This is why it’s important to have a clear message.

What is the most important benefit, promise, or solution that you want your prospect take home?

Or, in other words, what is your unique selling point (USP).

You will struggle to differentiate your offer from your competitors if you don’t have one.

Are you unsure how to simplify it to a clear message?

Start by answering these questions:

Why do people buy from your company? Why don’t people buy from you? Give this some thought, and then make a list.
What are the benefits clients get from doing business with your company? People buy for the benefits. What do your products or services do for them?
Is your product or service appealing to the emotional senses? Is it able to provide relief? Your clients should feel proud. Television is the ideal platform to hit your prospect’s emotional hot button.
Which problem are you solving or which need are you fulfilling?

Surveying your clients is another way to get ideas for your USP.

Ask them why they purchased from you. Ask them what problem you solved and why they chose you over other competitors. The answers may surprise you. Different reasons may lead to different purchases.

You want to identify the most popular reason people bought your product or service. Then, you can use that information to craft a compelling selling message that stands out.

Check out your competition. Sometimes, what’s obvious to you and to your competitors isn’t obvious for your potential clients. You can make your mark and stand out from the rest. Let’s take Folgers coffee as an example. They decided years ago to increase their sales. There was always competition. What did they do? They began to promote the fact that Folgers coffee was mountain-grown and had “Mountain Grown stamped” on their coffee cans. Sales exploded. Coffee grown on a mountain had to be exceptional. Right? The majority of coffee grown in mountain regions is what the average coffee drinker didn’t know. Folger’s used this fact to stand out. Your USP will make your TV campaign and marketing more successful.

Secret #2: Know Your Ideal Client

You will have an easier time generating sales leads through your TV ad campaign if you understand who your best prospects and why they choose to buy from you.

It’s almost impossible to make a television commercial that is effective without it.

This knowledge will allow you to craft a script that addresses the needs of your target audience and to present your unique selling proposition.

Your message is powerful and attracts people. Let’s suppose you aren’t sure who your ideal customer is. What is their motivation? How can you find out?

It’s easy to look at your clients. Particularly those that you enjoy working with. What are their commonalities? Are they similar in a few things? It’s possible that you already know your target market but don’t realize.

These are just a few criteria that you can use when defining your niche.

Age – Try to limit the age range of your top prospects
Gender – Who makes the purchase decision for your products and services? It is possible that someone could influence it. It is crucial to understand this information so that you can appeal to the right audience.
Marital status (single, married, divorced)
Household Income. Try to estimate the income of your target client.
Occupation: Are you looking for the best job prospects? * Geographical area. (ex. Toronto, warm climate, residents who live near water).
Lifestyle (professional, conservative, risk-takers)
Size of the company (self-employed professionals and Fortune 500 companies with at least $10 million in sales)
A marketing consultant who is industry-specific (a consultant who focuses solely on single-professionals)
What do your customers do for leisure time? Hobbies? What are your hobbies? What are your favorite pastimes? This will help you to understand the tone and language you should use and what information your target market is looking for.

It will also help you determine the audience to which your TV commercial should be shown in order to maximize sales.

Secret #3: Get involved in the process

Television advertising is a popular medium and small-sized business strategy. Many companies shy away from TV advertising because of the perceived high cost. (Secret #5)

However, there is often another factor that prevents many businesses from experiencing the same success as professionally produced television commercials.

Simply put, it can be daunting for some to make the leap into the world of television advertising.

You write the ad, and the publication prints it. Radio stations play your commercials.

Television is a complex medium that requires many pieces to make a successful campaign. It can also be daunting for people who have never done it before.

For your TV advertising experience, you will need to be a project manager. Are you a specialist? No. However, you will need to have a good understanding of the process so that you can make the most of it.

Here is a checklist to help you understand what elements are essential for a successful TV advertisement campaign.

BudgetMany small and medium-sized businesses do not realize that they could use the money they spend on radio or print advertising campaigns to create a television advertising campaign. We reveal the Secret#5 to help you avoid one of the most hidden costs in TV advertising. Your budget will include both production costs and airtime.
Script- Your script is your ad written in words. This is your main selling message. This script will dictate who says what, how they say it, and what expressions are used. It also determines what’s seen on the screen and who moves when and where. Your commercial will require a script.
TalentThis includes voiceover and on-camera talent. You will pay more for talent that is well-known or in high demand. Many advertisers will choose to hire local talent rather than regional talent in order to get a professional result.
Production Elements- Decide what type of graphics, music, or audio you want.
LengthTV commercial spots typically last 30 seconds. You can also run commercials in increments of 15 seconds and 60 seconds. A “infomercial” can last between 30 and 60 minutes, and is more expensive to produce and run.

Your TV commercial should end with a clear message for the viewer.

“What’s in it to me?”

To answer this question, both you and your prospect should be able to see how your product or service can benefit them.

You are the best person to sell your product.

To get the attention of the viewer, you must give as much information as possible. If you don’t, the viewer will leave and your investment will be wasted.

Last but not least…

Tell the viewer what you want them to do next!

It is amazing how many TV advertisers, including some long-standing veterans, fail to ask viewers to take the next step in the selling process. Are you asking them to visit your website? Call now! Come into your store? They need to be guided to the destination you desire. Let’s now look at one of the most costly mistakes made by television advertisers and offer some tips to help you avoid it.

Secret #4 Be “Marketing Ready” For Your Prospect

Advertising and marketing are a common way for businesses to establish a business relationship with prospects. Television advertising is no different.

A 30 second TV spot won’t answer all your questions.

After your advertisement has been successful, invite your prospect to contact you to find out more about how you can help him/her.

You could be invited to visit your site, call you, or drop by your address.

It is crucial to ensure that your prospect does what you ask them to so that they can move toward a sale.

Many TV advertisers make this mistake and waste their marketing dollars.

Let’s take as an example a visit on your website. Assume your prospect has seen your commercial and was shown the URL of your website after it ended.

He was intrigued by your commercial and wanted to learn more about you and what you offer.

Congratulations. Congratulations! Now you can move on to the next hurdle: getting the prospect to accept your offer.

That’s it.

You’re now ready to move on to the “conversion” phase of the sales process. Your site will not attract tons of people who can’t support your family, pay your mortgage, or allow you to relax on Cabo San Lucas’s beach.

You must convert the prospect’s initial interest into a sale.

A web site that fails to pick up from the television commercial by reminding the visitor “what’s in this for him” and telling your story compellingly is going to stop a sale opportunity.

Is it really worth tempting hungry prospects and then having them arrive at your home with nothing to eat?

The same applies if you wish them to call. Everyone on your team that has public contact needs to be available to maintain the momentum.

Your TV commercial’s job is to catch fish. Your marketing is responsible for the rest.

It is important to ensure that your marketing messages are consistent across all marketing channels. You won’t see the ROI you want.

Secret #5: Don’t let the Tail Wag Your Dog

Television advertising can be lucrative, but it is important to have an experienced guide who can help you navigate the pitfalls and produce a profit. We’ve provided you with all the information you need to ensure your television advertising campaigns are successful. It’s now time to bring the thread that ties everything together. Partnering with industry professionals who are familiar with the subject is a must. Advertising agencies are the first place small and medium-sized businesses turn to for help. This is a costly mistake.

Here’s why: Ad agencies often focus on messaging that is “institutional” or branding. They build image. Although a professional image is important, many businesses that use TV advertising need to make sales. You are probably the same. Your goal is to get viewers to view your commercial and then take the next step in your sales process. Perhaps a visit to your website or a call. Direct response television advertising is required for this. Many advertising agencies are not equipped to handle this task. They don’t know how to convert a potential client into a lifetime client.

Here’s the secret they want you to not learn: Most companies don’t have the resources or staff necessary to create your script. They also have the ability to shoot commercials using television production facilities. They may also have an editing room where you can edit your footage. Let’s see what this means for you. If agencies don’t have enough resources, they must look outside and find industry professionals to help them. Guess who is stuck with all those middlemen mark-ups? This old school mentality of “don’t worry, client will pay for” doesn’t end there. After your commercial has been approved for airing, you will need a TV channel to broadcast it. The ad agency will charge 15% of your media budget for looking up your spot and calling you to schedule it. Are you sure that’s how you want your media dollars to be spent? It’s like having someone gather a group of people to do it for you and then charge you. You might think so. Creative Bube Tube, a full-service one-source expert in direct response television advertising and corporate video productions, offers an alternative. We help small and medium-sized businesses to generate profit. Many of our clients are novices. We’ve helped many new clients.

These are the four pillars on which we have built our business model:

One Source – All aspects of your TV advertising are handled in-house by our staff. This allows you to avoid unnecessary delays, cost-cutting and finger-pointing that can be caused by too many fingers.
Expertise – We’re television advertising experts. It’s all we do. We do it all. We know how to sell. This means that campaigns not only look professional but also send qualified prospects your way.
Cost-Effective – We know what we are doing and how to make it work for you. This ensures that every dollar you spend is increasing your sales. Our media connections over the years give you red carpet access into your target market at a fraction the price you would otherwise pay – and with no hidden fees.
Process – Sales driven creativity, efficient production, planning, and organization are the keys to affordable TV advertising. This requires clear communication. All of our work is done in-house. Your creative is not outsourced to a company without a marketing background. Send the footage from filming to a post production house. Next, hire a media buyer who likely has never seen the creative. You can then relax and watch as the chaos and disorganization consume your budget. Every member of our team is intimately involved in the project, from beginning to finish.

Creative Bube Tube is a television advertising tool that makes TV advertising more effective and efficient. It’s for both newbies as well as long-time TV advertisers who are tired wasting marketing dollars on old-school methods. We’re happy to help you if you have been considering television advertising, but were hesitant to do so because it would be too expensive. Call us at 1-855 BUBETUBE today or visit our website

E-Books: Price and Value

E-book pricing has been a topic of debate for several years. Which price is best? What price is the customer willing and able to pay? What can the government and courts do? This can be confusing for authors and lead to confusion.

What can an independent author do when the big publishing companies, courts and online retailers continue to fight it out? While no one knows everything, common sense, some price experimentation, and some industry knowledge can help you decide the right price for your ebook. There is no one price that is right for every book.

These are some questions you should ask when setting the price of your e-book.

How valuable is your book?

Before you decide on the price, you need to know what your book is worth. You wrote a short, erotic novel to be able to compete with all the others. Its value will likely be low as it is not in high demand. If you are writing a thesis on a niche topic with no published book on it, the value of your work may be high even though your audience might be small. Is it possible to spend ten years researching and writing your book or just a few hours. Are your readers able to find the information in your book anywhere else?

An author once said that her one hundred-page history book was too expensive. She responded, “What do I think my book is worth after five years of writing it?” She clearly perceived her book’s worth as high. However, her readers may not view it as valuable because they see a small volume that is easy to read. Also consider the time your reader will spend reading it. Is it worth $9.99 to your reader to spend an hour reading a book? Your reader may value time more than money so he might not want to spend $9.99 on what he perceives as ten hours reading your book. He would rather pay $2.99.

You could be right if you believe your book is worth a higher price. However, your marketing efforts will have to convince your readers of this value.

How much can you charge for an e-book?

Your e-book should never be priced above $9.99 Although some major publishers may allow for higher prices for authors with best-selling books, $9.99 is the maximum price for most people. Amazon determined that $9.99 was the threshold for higher royalties. Amazon will pay 70 percent on books priced between $9.99 and $2.99, while those priced over $9.99 will only receive a 35 percent royalty. This means that a $15.00 book will net you about $5.00, while a $9.99 book will make you $7.00. While I can’t address every e-book retailer pricing model, you can look at each one individually. However, $9.99 is the best price.

Pricing high has the advantage of making more money per book. However, it will also mean you sell less books. Nevertheless, books priced lower might be perceived as having less value, being from unknown authors, poorly written or simply shorter. Anything below $2.99 is a lower quality book for me. Even the author may not see its value.

An e-book price range of $3.00 to $6.99 is acceptable for established authors. This will likely not discourage most readers from purchasing your book. If you are selling a book that readers will value, price it between $7.00 and $9.99. You should either have the information value that is worth buying or be well-known author with thousands of readers.

How many books would you like to sell?

You will need to sell 10 e-books if your book is priced at $0.99. The lower price might make your book more attractive than if it were priced at $9.99. You can sell 10 books for $0.99. Wouldn’t that be better? This means you have 10 more readers who will read your books in the future, so you can price them higher.

What is the price of competition?

Check out other books in the same genre. What are the prices of other romance authors if you’re a new author? Your e-book can be priced higher if your first business book is well-received in the industry. Your price should be at least slightly less than that of other books in the same or similar genres. If Lady Jane Grey is featured in two books, one is less expensive than the other, the likelihood is that yours will be purchased.

Where can your readers buy their books?

Although I doubt that many e-book sellers are spending their time comparing the price of your e book at different online stores, it is important to keep the prices the same across all sites. However, just because your book appears on Amazon does not mean it will be purchased there by your readers. You should sell your book at other sites such as Barnes & Noble, Kobo, and Google Play, which are all popular places for people who use Android phones and tablets. Do you sell to twenty-year-olds who are likely to purchase at Google Play, or to seniors who may prefer Amazon because it is more familiar? Price your book accordingly to ensure it is available at all locations. A twenty-year-old college student may have little money, so $0.99 might be a better option. However, most e-book sellers will require you to price your book the same at all of their stores.

Are you able to have multiple books, especially a series?

Pricing one book lower if you have multiple books. You might give away the first book of a series if you have written it. If the book is compelling, readers will be more likely to buy the rest of your series. If you have written several books, but not a series of books, I suggest pricing the one you consider the best. This is because people will be most likely to read it again.

Would you consider serializing your book or selling it in chapters?

Books, especially novels, have been serialized for centuries. Recently, however, authors are selling their books in chapters or shorter installments. If you have a shorter book, up to fifty pages, that works well as a standalone piece, then price it at $1.99 and continue the series at the same or slightly higher price. If the reader likes the first book, he will likely buy four at that price. However, if he doesn’t like it, he might buy another for $7.96. You’ll still make $7.96 if they end up buying all four.

Are you a pro at marketing your book

Marketing is key to achieving your bottom line. No matter how high your book’s price, it doesn’t necessarily mean that everyone will read it. It’s possible for someone to stumble across it in an online bookstore and purchase it. However, if you really market it, you will sell more books. Marketing skills will help you promote your book as being valuable and entertaining. Then, perhaps, you can price it higher due to that perceived value. If you don’t have the time or desire to market your book, price it low to offset any marketing effort.